Lesson 10: “The End?”

Dialogue 10 :

Brian: Linda, why do you look so sad?

Linda: My sister is very sad. She says, she would like to break up with her boyfriend. He told her yesterday that he had met another girl three days ago on the set. He meant, he could not understand it, but he would still like to stay with my sister.Typical male! My sister thinks that he should leave her alone!

Brian: My friend has a similar problem. We talked yesterday and he said that he missed his girlfriend friend from Sweden so much. He said that he had not heard anything from her in 3 days. They got to know each other just before his departure. My friend said that she had not been very happy about his journey to London. He asked her in his last SMS whether she still liked him

Linda: Hmmm I do not know, what could be done. Men are said to be very difficult. Hahaha

Brian: As a man you are not asked either ... You are simply born Hahaha....

Linda: Stop! Men are still better educated today in many countries and served by women. For thousands of years, everything has been made for them by us.

Brian: That’s now in the past! The doors are now opened for women and women have been lifted up Hahaha. No, you are right. Some women are paid really badly. But what can be done, so that women are not discriminated against any more?

Linda: I know that not a whole lot has changed, and still some mistakes are made. Women and men – a neverending story. That is how history began and no one knows, how it will finish!

Grammar 10 A: Reported Speech :

Direct Speech: Indirect (Reported) Speech:
Reporting verb is present in directspeech: e. g. Tim says: “I am tired.” Reporting verb is present in indirectspeech: e. g. Tim says (that) he is tired”

(only pronoun changes!)

Reporting verb is past in direct speech:e. g. Tim said: “I am tired today.” Reporting verb is past in indirect speech: e. g. Tim said (that) he was tiredthat day” (pronoun, adverb and tense change!).

Present form in direct speech changes to past.

Past form in direct speech changes to past perfect.

Present perfect form in direct speech changes to past perfect.

Future form in direct speech changes to conditional 1.

Attention: If something is still true, you do

not need to change the verb!

Direct questions and direct orders(Examples):

She asked me: “Are you going to come to my party?”

He told me: “Stop!”

Indirect questions and indirect orders(Examples):

She asked me if I was going to her party. He told me to stop.

Grammar 10 B: Passive Forms :

Active: Passive:
An active verb is used to express whatthe subject does: A passive verb is used to express whathappens to the subject (form of “to be” +

past participle):

Tenses with example:Present Tense: He opens the door”.

Present Perfect Tense: He has opened the door”.

Past Tense: He opened the door”.

Past Perfect Tense: He had opened the door”.

Future Tense will: He will open the door”.

Future Tense going to: He is going to open the door”.

Tenses with example:Present Tense: The door is opened by him.

Present Perfect Tense: The door has been opened by him.

Past Tense: “The door was opened by him.

Past Perfect Tense: The door had been opened by him.

Future Tense will: “The door will be opened by him.

Future Tense going to: The door is going to be opened by him.

Exercise 10 A :

Fill in the correct form of the reported speech. Choose from this box:

been could had had had heard leave like like liked met missed should would would

Brian: Linda, why do you look so sad? Linda: My sister is very sad. She says, she ________ ________ to break up with her boyfriend. He told her yesterday that he ________ ________ another girl three days ago on the set. He meant, he ________ not understand it, but he ________ still ________ to stay with my sister. Typical male! My sister thinks that he ________ ________ her alone! Brian: My friend has a similar problem. We talked yesterday and he said that he ________ his girlfriend friend from Sweden so much. He said that he ________ not ________ anything from her in 3 days. They got to know each other just before his departure. My friend said that she ________ not ________ very happy about his journey to London. He asked her in his last SMS whether she still ________ him…

Fill in the correct passive form of the verb. Choose from this box:

are are are are are are are are asked be be been been born can could discriminated done done educated have has lifted made made opened paid said served

Linda: Hmmm I do not know, what ________ ________ ________. Men ________ ________ to be very difficult. Hahaha… Brian: As a man you ________ not ________ either … You ________ simply ________… Hahaha…. Linda: Stop! Men ________ still better ________ today in many countries and ________ by women. For thousands of years, everything ________ ________ ________ for them by us. Brian: That’s now in the past! The doors ________ now ________ for women and women ________ ________ ________ up… Hahaha. No, you are right. Some women ________ ________ really badly. But what ________ ________ ________, so that women ________ not ________ against any more? Linda: I know that not a whole lot has changed, and still some mistakes ________ ________. Women and men – a never-ending story. That is how history began and no one knows, how it will finish!

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